Alpha-fetoprotein-This test measures the
levels of a protein called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the blood or
amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is the substance that surrounds a baby
in the womb. The function of AFP is not well understood. Unborn and
young children produce
Anemia-Anemia is a condition in which red
blood cells or the hemoglobin (a protein) in red blood cells is
Benign tumor-any abnormal growth that does
not represent cancer.
Biopsy-A biopsy is the removal of a sample
of tissue from the body. The sample is then examined under a
microscope. Biopsies are used to diagnose many medical conditions, from
skin problems to cancer.
Bleomycin- BLEOMYCIN (Blenoxane®)
is a type of chemotherapy for treating cancer. Bleomycin is an
antibiotic that interferes with the cycle of cell growth. It is
effective in containing many types of cancer, including testicular
Blood Count-A CBC, also called a complete
blood count, is a screening test used to diagnose and manage many
diseases. A CBC measures the status of important features of the blood,
including the: number of red blood cells (RBCs) number of white blood
cells (WBCs) number of platelets total amount of hemoglobin in the
blood percentage of blood composed of cells, or hematocrit mean
corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
(MCHC) mean corpuscular volume (MCV).
Catheter-An intravenous line, or
IV, that is inserted into a vein to deliver medication, fluids, or
nutrition. It can also be used to remove blood for sampling.
Chemotherapy-Chemotherapy refers to
medications that can kill or control cancer. These medications are
delivered to all parts of the body in the bloodstream. For this reason,
chemotherapy is considered a systemic treatment, or one that affects
the entire body. (2)chemotherapy. This treatment is given to men with
nonseminomas or seminomas that are large or have spread. Chemotherapy
is often used when other treatments have not been effective. Cisplatin,
bleomycin, and etoposide are the medications most commonly used. They
are often used in combination.
Chest X-ray-Chest x-rays detect
abnormalities of the lungs, heart, great blood vessels, chest wall,
ribs, diaphragm and thoracic spine. The healthcare provider will
discuss abnormal results with the individual.
Cisplatin-Cisplatin is considered
to be the platinum agent of choice in combination chemotherapy for head
and neck and testicular cancers.
(VePesid®) is a type of chemotherapy for treating cancer. Etoposide
interferes with the growth of cells. Etoposide is effective in treating
cancer of the lung and testicles.
component in the red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues.
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)-Human
chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a gonad-stimulating polypeptide hormone
normally secreted by the placenta during pregnancy.
Immune System-The body's system of defenses
against disease, composed of certain white blood cells and antibodies.
Antibodies are protein substances that react against bacteria and other
Lymph-A nearly colorless fluid that bathes body cells and moves
through the lymphatic vessel of the body.
Lymph nodes-Bean-shaped structures
scattered along vessels of the lymphatic system. These nodes act as
filters, collecting bacteria or cancer cells that may travel through
the lymphatic system.
Lymphatic system-Circulatory network of
vessels carrying lymph, and the lymphoid organs such as the lymph
nodes, spleen, and thymus, that produce and store infection-fighting
Malignant-Tending to become progressively
worse; in the case of cancer, it implies ability to invade, spread, and
actively destroy normal tissue.
Metastasize-Cancer growths that started
from cancer cells shed by a primary cancer arising in another part of
Nonseminoma-Testicular cancers made
up of specialized cells.
Oncologist-A physician who
specializes in cancer.
Oncology-Study of the physical,
chemical, and biological properties and features of cancer.
Orchiectomy-Surgical removal of one
or both testes.
Pathologist-A physician who
interprets and diagnoses the changes cause by disease in the body.
Prognosis-An estimate of the
outcome of a disease; a prediction.
Protocol-A general treatment plan
that several hospitals use for one type of cancer.
Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection -
RPLND -type of surgery in which potentially cancerous lymph nodes are
removed from the area behind the abdomen, known as the retroperitoneum.
Seminoma- primitive cells
resembling the primordial germ cell.
Testis (Testicle) gonads-Male reproductive
organs located in the scrotum that produce sperm and the male hormone,
Testosterone-Testosterone is a steroid
hormone that is secreted from the Leydig cells of the testes in males
and from the adrenal cortex and ovaries in females. Testosterone is
necessary for the development and maintenance of secondary sex
characteristics in the male.
Tumor-A spontaneous new growth of tissue forming an abnormal mass.
A neoplasm, or tumor, serves no useful function growing at the expense
of the healthy organism.
Tumor marker-Tumor markers are
chemical substances that are produced by some cancers. Most of these
substances can be found in the bloodstream in small amounts even when
cancer is not present. When cancers produce these substances, they are
usually produced in very large amounts. The amount of the substances
may increase far above a normal level as the disease worsens.
Ultrasound-A test to examine a
number of organs in the body. The ultrasound machine uses
high-frequency sound waves to echo off the body and create a picture.
specializing in the urinary tract and male reproductive tract.
X-Rays-High-energy radiation used in high doses to treat cancer or
in low doses to diagnoses disease.