- This test measures the levels of a protein called alpha-fetoprotein
(AFP) in the blood or amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is the substance
that surrounds a baby in the womb. The function of AFP is not well
understood. Unborn and young children produce
Anemia is a condition in which red blood cells or the hemoglobin (a
protein) in red blood cells is abnormally low.
- any abnormal growth that does not represent cancer.
- A biopsy is the removal of a sample of tissue from the body. The
sample is then examined under a microscope. Biopsies are used to
diagnose many medical conditions, from skin problems to cancer.
- BLEOMYCIN (Blenoxane®) is
a type of chemotherapy for treating cancer. Bleomycin is an antibiotic
that interferes with the cycle of cell growth. It is effective in
containing many types of cancer, including testicular cancer.
Blood Count -
A CBC, also called a complete blood count, is a screening test used to
diagnose and manage many diseases. A CBC measures the status of
important features of the blood, including the: number of red blood
cells (RBCs) number of white blood cells (WBCs) number of platelets
total amount of hemoglobin in the blood percentage of blood composed of
cells, or hematocrit mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) mean corpuscular
hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) mean corpuscular volume (MCV).
An intravenous line, or IV, that is inserted into a vein to deliver
medication, fluids, or nutrition. It can also be used to remove blood
- Chemotherapy refers to medications that can kill or control cancer.
These medications are delivered to all parts of the body in the
bloodstream. For this reason, chemotherapy is considered a systemic
treatment, or one that affects the entire body. (2)chemotherapy. This
treatment is given to men with nonseminomas or seminomas that are large
or have spread. Chemotherapy is often used when other treatments have
not been effective. Cisplatin, bleomycin, and etoposide are the
medications most commonly used. They are often used in combination.
- Chest x-rays detect abnormalities of the lungs, heart, great blood
vessels, chest wall, ribs, diaphragm and thoracic spine. The healthcare
provider will discuss abnormal results with the individual.
Cisplatin is considered to be the platinum agent of choice in
combination chemotherapy for head and neck and testicular cancers.
- ETOPOSIDE, VP-16 (VePesid®)
is a type of chemotherapy for treating cancer. Etoposide interferes
with the growth of cells. Etoposide is effective in treating cancer of
the lung and testicles.
- The iron-protein component in the red blood cells that carries oxygen
to the tissues.
Gonadotropin (hCG) -
gonadotropin (hCG) is a gonad-stimulating polypeptide hormone
normally secreted by the placenta during pregnancy.
- The body's system of defenses against disease, composed of certain
white blood cells and antibodies. Antibodies are protein substances
that react against bacteria and other harmful material.
A nearly colorless fluid that bathes body cells and moves through the
lymphatic vessel of the body.
- Bean-shaped structures scattered along vessels of the lymphatic
system. These nodes act as filters, collecting bacteria or cancer cells
that may travel through the lymphatic system.
- Circulatory network of vessels carrying lymph, and the lymphoid
organs such as the lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus, that produce and
store infection-fighting cells.
Tending to become progressively worse; in the case of cancer, it
implies ability to invade, spread, and actively destroy normal tissue.
- Cancer growths that started from cancer cells shed by a primary
cancer arising in another part of the body.
- Testicular cancers made up of specialized cells.
- A physician who specializes in cancer.
Study of the physical, chemical, and biological properties and features
- Surgical removal of one or both testes.
- A physician who interprets and diagnoses the changes cause by disease
in the body.
- An estimate of the outcome of a disease; a prediction.
- A general treatment plan that several hospitals use for one type of
Lymph Node Dissection (RPLND)
- type of surgery in which potentially cancerous lymph nodes are
removed from the area behind the abdomen, known as the retroperitoneum.
- primitive cells resembling the primordial germ cell.
(Testicle) gonads - Male reproductive organs located in the
scrotum that produce sperm and the male hormone, testosterone.
- Testosterone is a steroid hormone that is secreted from the Leydig
cells of the testes in males and from the adrenal cortex and ovaries in
females. Testosterone is necessary for the development and maintenance
of secondary sex characteristics in the male.
A spontaneous new growth of tissue forming an abnormal mass. A
neoplasm, or tumor, serves no useful function growing at the expense of
the healthy organism.
Tumor marker -
Tumor markers are chemical substances that are produced by some
cancers. Most of these substances can be found in the bloodstream in
small amounts even when cancer is not present. When cancers produce
these substances, they are usually produced in very large amounts. The
amount of the substances may increase far above a normal level as the
A test to examine a number of organs in the body. The ultrasound
machine uses high-frequency sound waves to echo off the body and create
- A physician/surgeon specializing in the urinary tract and male
High-energy radiation used in high doses to treat cancer or in low
doses to diagnoses disease.